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    Glossary

    Adult stem cells and progenitor cells

    Stem cells and progenitor cells that are obtained from an adult individual. Sources of such adult cells are for instance bone marrow or blood. They are also found in other organ tissues. In skin for example they have an important role in scar formation after wounding. Adult stem cells from bone marrow are responsible for the continuous formation of new blood cells. Therapies using autologous adult stem cells bear no risk of rejection inside the body and are considered free of ethical issues.

    Arteriogenesis

    An increase in the diameter of existing arterial vessels.

    Autologous

    Donor and recipient are identical. This means that for an autologous cellular product the patient gets back cells that originate from his own cells and not from a foreign donor.

    BMC

    Bone Marrow Cell

    Chronic ischemic heart disease

    Disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

    Dilated cardiomyopathy

    A condition in which the heart becomes weakened and enlarged, and cannot pump blood efficiently.

    Endothel

    The tissue covering the inner surface of blood vessels.

    Ficoll-gradient

    Separation of cells by different density levels.

    GMP

    Good Manufacturing Practice

    Ischemic

    Ischemic means that a tissue is insufficiently supplied with blood and thus suffering from too litle oxygen and nutrients.

    Mesenchymal stem cells

    Type of cells that can form several tissues in the body, including bone, cartilage, muscles, blood vessels, connective or fatty tissue.

    Morbidity

    The frequency of a disease in a segment of the population.

    Mortality

    Death rate.

    Multipotent stem cell

    Cell carrying the potency of changing itself into different cell types.

    Myocardium

    Cardiac muscle

    Neovascularization

    Neovascularization is the formation of new capillaries and blood vessels to supply ischemic tissue.

    Paracrine

    This means that a cell produces and excretes certain factors that have an effect on immediate neighbour cells.

    Peripheral artery occlusive disease

    Disease caused by obstruction of large arteries in legs and arms.

    Periphery

    Outer part of the body

    Progenitor cell

    Progenitor cells are cells with somewhat limited stem cell properties. E.g., they can only differentiate into certain tissue types. In colloquial language, progenitor cells are often referred to as "stem cells".

    Reperfusion

    Restoration of blood flow in a blood vessel where blood flow had been obstructed due to narrowing or closure.

    Stem cell

    Stem cells are non specialized cells with an unlimited capacity to self renewal and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. Stem cells are a reservoir for the formation and renewal of organs and tissues.

    Stenting

    In cardiology „stenting“ means the application of a stent to a diseased vessel. A stent is a tubular meshwork (metal or other materials) that keeps the vessel lumen open.

    Thromboangiitis obliterans

    Rare inflammatory peripheral vascular disease, also called Buerger's disease

    Thrombosis

    Formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

    Transdifferentiation

    Transdifferentiation means that a progenitor cell that is already committed to a certain cell type changes its properties and characteristics to those of another cell type. For instance the changes from a blood renewing progenitor cell into a heart muscle cell would be referred to as transdifferentiation. Experimentally, many forms of transdifferentiation have been described. It is however unclear to what extent this phenomenon is of relevance in regenerating damaged cardiac tissue.

    Ventricle

    Ventricle means heart chamber.